Plastic surgery is also called cosmetic procedures.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty that involves restoring, rebuilding or altering the human body. We can divide it into two major categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and burn treatment. While reconstructive surgery aims to rebuild a part of the body or improve its function, cosmetic (or cosmetic) surgery aims to improve its appearance.
The History of Plastic surgery
The word plastic in plastic surgery means “remodeling” and comes from the Greek:plasticē (tekhnē), “the art of modeling” moldable meat. I already seen this meaning in English in 1598. The surgical definition of “plastic” first appeared in 1839 and was 70 years earlier than the modern sense of “technical material made of oil”.
Treatments for plastic repair of a broken nose are first mentioned in an ancient Egyptian medical text called Edwin. Smith Papyrus. The textbook for early traumatic surgery is named after the American Egyptologist Edwin Smith. They used reconstructive surgical techniques in India around 800 BC.
Sushruta was a physician who made contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in the 6th century BC. C. The developments of Sushrutas were preserved in his book Sushruta Samhita. The Roman scholar Aulus Cornelius Celsus recorded surgical techniques, including plastic surgery, in the 1st century AD.
The Romans also performed plastic cosmetic surgery around the first century BC. C. using simple techniques such as repairing damaged ears. For religious reasons, they did not dissect humans or animals, so they based entirely on their knowledge on the texts of their Greek predecessors. However, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some precise anatomical descriptions, some of which, for example, his studies on the genitals and skeleton, are of particular interest for plastic surgery.
The Indian medical work of Sushruta and Charaka, originally in Sanskrit, was translated into Arabic during the Abbasid caliphate in 750 AD. Arabic translations came to Europe through intermediaries. In Italy, the Branca family from Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of sushruta. In Italy, the Branca family  from Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) became familiar with the techniques of sushruta.
Poona, played by an Indian potter, Gentleman’s Magazine 1794 British doctors traveled to India to undergo nasal surgery using Indian methods. They published reports on the Indian rhinoplasty of a Kumhar Vaidya in Gentleman’s Magazine in 1794. Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local methods of plastic surgery. Carpue was able to carry out the first major operation in the western world in 1815. The instruments described in Sushruta Samhita have been further changed in the Western world.
Skip ahead to 1891, the American otolaryngologist John Roe presented an example of his work: a young woman in whom he reduced a dorsal nasal hump for cosmetic indications.
In 1892, Robert Weir unsuccessfully experimented with xenografts (duck sternum) to rebuild sunken noses. From Germany, and George Monks of the United States in 1889, the successful use of heterogeneous free bone grafts to reconstruct the defects of the saddle nose.
In 1898, Jacques Joseph, the German surgeon with orthopedic training, published his first report on reduction rhinoplasty. Jacques Joseph nose plasticity and other facial plastics.
Modern techniques in plastic surgery
Development of modern techniques Walter Yeo, a sailor wounded in the Battle of Jutland, will undergo plastic surgery in 1917.
We consider the father of modern plastic surgery is Sir Harold Gillies. As a New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London, he developed many of the techniques used in modern facial surgery to care for soldiers who suffered disfiguring facial injuries during World War 1.
During World War I, he worked as a medical caregiver for the Royal Army Medical Corps. After working with renowned French oral and maxillofacial surgeon Hippolyte Morestin on skin grafts, he persuaded the chief army surgeon, Arbuthnot-Lane, to establish a facial injury department at the Cambridge Military Hospital, Aldershot, which later became a new Hospital for facial repairs.
There, Gillies and his colleagues developed many techniques of plastic surgery; over 11,000 surgeries were performed on over 5,000 men (mostly soldiers with facial injuries, usually from gunshot wounds).
After the war, Gillies developed a private practice with Rainsford Mowlem, including many famous patients, and traveled extensively to promote his advanced techniques around the world. In 1930, Gillie’s cousin, Archibald McIndoe, entered the practice and became involved in plastic surgery. When World War II broke out, the offer of plastic surgery was largely divided among the various services of the armed forces, and Gillies and his team were divided.
They sent him to Rooksdown House near Basingstoke, which became the army’s most important plastic surgery unit. Tommy Kilner (who worked with Gillies during World War I and who has now given his name to a surgical instrument, the Kilner-Cheek retractor) went to Queen Mary’s Hospital in Roehampton.Mowlem went to St Albans.
McIndoe, RAF consultant, moved to the newly rebuilt Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead, Sussex. This is where he founded a centre for plastic and maxillofacial surgery. He treated very deep burns and severe facial disfigurements here, such as loss of eyelids, which were typically caused by burning fuel for the airplane crew.
McIndoe is often known not only for developing new techniques to treat faces and hands with severe burns, but also for the importance of rehabilitation of victims. He especially was known for social reintegration into normal life.
He got rid of “convalescence uniforms” and had patients wear their service uniforms instead. With the help of two friends, Neville and Elaine Blond, he also convinced the locals to support patients and invite them to their homes.
McIndoe repeatedly referred to them as “his boys” and the employees called him “The Boss” or “The Master.”
His other important work included the development of walking stem skin graft and the discovery that saline immersion increased healing and improved survival rates for victims with extensive burns; this was a fortunate discovery that emerged from observing differential healing comes from the prices of pilots who had run over on land and at sea.
His radical and experimental treatments led to the founding of the Guinea Pig Club at Queen Victoria Hospital in Sussex. The best-known members of his “club” included Richard Hillary, Bill Foxley and Jimmy Edwards.
Today Plastic Surgery covers many techniques.
Plastic surgery is a broad field and can be further subdivided. In the United States, the American Board of Plastic Surgery certifies plastic surgeons. In the UK The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS) is a similar regulator promoting excellence in aesthetic surgery.
Subdisciplines of plastic surgery
Cosmetic surgery is a central part of plastic surgery and includes facial and body aesthetics. Plastic surgeons use principles of cosmetic surgery in all reconstructive surgical procedures, as well as in isolated operations, to improve the overall appearance.
They usually perform burn surgery in two phases. Acute burn surgery is the treatment immediately after a burn. They carry a reconstructive burn operation out after the burns have healed.
Craniofacial surgery Craniofacial surgery is divided into pediatric and adult craniofacial surgery.
Pediatric craniofacial surgery is primarily concerned with the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues, such as cleft lip and palate, microtia, craniosynostosis, and pediatric fractures.
Adult craniofacial surgery is mainly about reconstructive surgery after trauma or cancer and revision operations, as well as orthognathic and facial feminization operations.
Craniofacial surgery is an important part of all plastic surgery training programs. They provide additional training and subspecialisation through a craniofacial fellowship. Maxillofacial surgeons also performed craniofacial surgery.
Ethnic plastic surgery
Ethnic plastic surgery is a plastic surgery performed to change ethnic attributes, often seen as a means of “passing”.
Hand surgery deals with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities and problems of the peripheral nerves (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Hand surgery is an important part of training in plastic surgery, as well as in microsurgery required to replant an amputated limb.
Orthopedists and general surgeons also practiced the field of hand surgery. The formation of scar tissue after surgery can be problematic in the sensitive hand and can cause a loss of dexterity and function of the fingers if it is heavy enough. There have been cases of surgery on women’s hands to correct perceived errors and create the perfect photo of the engagement ring.
Microsurgery usually deals with reconstructing missing tissue by transferring a piece of tissue to the reconstruction site; and Reconnect the blood vessels. Popular areas of expertise include breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery/reimplantation, and brachial plexus.
Pediatric Plastic Surgery
Children often face medical problems that differ greatly from an adult patient’s experience. Many birth defects or syndromes that occur at birth are best treated in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons specialise in treating these conditions in children.
Conditions that pediatric plastic surgeons typically treat include craniofacial abnormalities, syndactyly (tissue from fingers and toes), polydactyly (excess fingers and toes at birth), cleft lips and palate, and congenital hand deformities.
Plastic surgery in prison
Plastic surgery performed on an incarcerated population to influence its relapse rate. This practice was introduced at the beginning of the 20th century and lasted until the mid-1990s. Separately from operations for medical purposes.
Techniques and Procedures
In plastic surgery, skin tissue transfer (skin grafting) is a very common procedure. We can derive skin grafts from recipients or donors: they take autografts from the recipient. When natural tissue is missing or lacking, alternatives may include sheets of epithelial cells cultured in vitro or synthetic compounds such as integra, comprising silicone and bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans.
- Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species.
- Xenografts are taken from a donor of another species.
Good results are expected from plastic surgeries where careful planning of cuts are emphasised so that they fall within the line of folds or natural lines of the skin, the right choice of wound closure, the use of the best available suture material and the early removal of exposed seams, so that the wound is kept closed buried seams.
Navy doctors perform reconstructive surgery on a 21-year-old patient Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional disorders caused by burns; traumatic injuries such as fractures and fractures of the facial bone; congenital anomalies such as clefts or fissures palate, lips, developmental disorders, infections and diseases, as well as cancer or tumors.
The goal of reconstructive plastic surgery is to restore form and function. The most common reconstructive procedures are tumour removal, crack repair, maxillofacial surgery, scar revision, hand surgery, and breast reduction.
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the number of reconstructive breast reductions in women decreased by 4 percent in 2018 compared to the previous year.
Male breast reduction decreased by 8 percent in 2018. In 2018, 57,535 were carried out. Some other common reconstructive surgical procedures include breast reconstruction after a mastectomy to treat cancer, surgery on the cleft lip and palate, contract surgery for burn survivors, and the creation of a new outer ear if one is innately missing.
Plastic surgeons use microsurgery to transfer tissue to cover a defect when local tissue is not available. Free skin, muscles, bones, fat, or a combination can be removed from the body, moved to another part of the body, and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins with a diameter of 1 to 2 millimetres.
Cosmetic surgery is a voluntary or elective surgery performed on normal parts of the body to improve a person’s appearance and/or eliminate signs of aging.
- In 2014, nearly 16 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone.
- The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has almost doubled since the beginning of the century.
- 92% of cosmetic procedures were performed on women in 2014, up from 88% in 2001.
- In 2007, nearly 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed, and the five most common surgeries were breast augmentation, liposuction, breast reduction, eyelid correction and abdominoplasty.
The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery examines the statistics of 34 different cosmetic procedures. Nineteen of the procedures are surgical, such as rhinoplasty or facelift. Non-surgical procedures include Botox and laser hair removal.
In 2010, their survey showed that there were 9,336,814 cases in the United States. Of these, 1,622,290 operations were surgical. They also found that a large majority, 81%, of procedures on Caucasians.
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) estimates that over 333,000 cosmetic procedures in the U.S. Department of Education in 2005 in patients 18 years of age or younger, compared to approximately 14,000 a year.
This is important because it encourages younger people to continue these procedures later in life. The increase in using cosmetic procedures is crossing racial and ethnic lines in the US. And more and more African-Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans and Caucasian Americans appear more and more.
Of 1191 articles in British newspapers, 89% used the term “plastic surgery” in cosmetic surgery. This is important because it shows how often the Western world presents cosmetic surgery.
Cosmetic surgery has become increasingly popular in Asia, and countries such as China and India have become the largest cosmetic surgery markets in Asia.The first publication by a team of South Korean surgeons on facial bone contouring surgery, illustrating various surgical methods for facial bone contouring surgeries, has been published.
Plastic surgery is increasing slowly, increasing by 115% between 2000 and 2015. “According to annual plastic surgery procedure statistics, 15.9 million surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures in the US in 2015. “A 2021 study found that requests for cosmetic procedures have declined since the beginning of COVID-19. The estimates cited include a 10% increase in the United States and a 20% increase in France. In 1949, 15,000 Americans underwent cosmetic surgery. In 1969, that number increased to nearly half a million people.
The most popular aesthetic/cosmetic procedures
- Abdominoplasty (“abdominoplasty”): reshaping and tightening of the abdomen otherwise known as a tummy tuck
- Blepharoplasty (“eyelid surgery”): reshaping of the upper/lower eyelids, including phalloplasty and widely known to be the best bang for your buck if you’re looking for facial regeneration
- Asian blepharoplasty (“penile surgery”): construction (or reconstruction) of a penis or a Sometimes artificial change of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes mammoplasty: breast augmentation (“breast implant” or “breast work”): breast augmentation using fat grafting, saline solution or silicone gel prosthesis, which was originally performed in women with micromastia
- Mammoplasty reduction (“breast reduction”): Removal of skin and glandular tissue to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and in men with gynecomastia
- Mastopexy (“breast lift”): lift or reshape the breasts to make them less flabby, often after weight loss (such as after pregnancy). It involves removal of breast skin instead of glandular tissue augmentation mastopexy (“breast lift with breast implants”): lifting the breasts so that they are less sagging, repositioning the nipple to a higher location, and enlarging the breast with silicone gel or saline implants. Recent studies on a new technique of concurrent augmentation mastopexy (SAM) show that it is a safe surgical procedure with minimal medical complications In the SAM technique, tissue is first invaginated and stapled to visualise the result before they make surgical incisions in the breast.
- Buttock augmentation (“buttock implant”): buttock enhancement with silicone implants or fat grafting (“Brazilian buttock lift”) where fat comes from other areas of the body.
- Cryolipolysis: refers to a medical device used to destroy fat cells. They base its principle on controlled cooling for the local non-invasive reduction of fat deposits in order to reshape the contours of the body.
- Cryoneuromodulation: treatment of superficial and subcutaneous tissue structures with gaseous nitrous oxide, including temporary wrinkle reduction, temporary pain reduction, treatment of dermatological diseases and focal cryotreatment.
- Calf tissue enlargement: performed using silicone implants or Fat transfer. Increases pantor muscles.
- Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and female genital lip reshaping.
- Lip augmentation: change the appearance of the lips by increasing their fullness through surgical enlargement with lip implants or non-surgical enlargement with injectable fillers Cheiloplasty: surgical reconstruction of the lip.
- Rhinoplasty (“rhinoplasty”) – reshaping of the nose, which is sometimes used to correct breathing disturbed by structural defects.
- Otoplasty (“ear surgery/ear fixation”): Reshaping the ear, usually covering the ear that protrudes closer to the head.
- Rhytidectomy (“facelift”): elimination of wrinkles and signs of aging of the face
- Neck lift: tighten the loose tissue in the neck. They often combine this procedure with a facelift to rejuvenate the lower part of the face. We can also do this with radiofrequency skin tightening.
- Forehead plastic (“forehead lift” or “forehead lift”): Raise the eyebrows, softens the skin of the forehead Lifting the middle of the face (“lift the cheeks”): Firming the cheeks
- Genioplasty: enlargement of the chin with the bones of a person or through an implant, usually made of silicone, suturing the soft tissue
- Mentoplasty: chin surgery. This may include increasing or reducing the chin. They achieve improvements through the use of facial implants. By reducing the chin, the size of the chin bone was reduced.
- Cheek augmentation (“cheek implant”): cheek implants
- Orthognathic surgery: alteration of the upper and lower jawbones (using osteotomy) to correct jaw alignment problems and correct tooth alignment
- Injections filler: collagen, fat and other injections of tissue fillers such as brachioplasty with hyaluronic acid (“arm lift”): reduce excess skin and fat between the armpit and elbow
- Laser skin resurfacing or laser treatment: reduce the depth of facial pores and exfoliate dead or damaged cells including post acne
- Liposuction is fat removal by sucking it out. Vaser liposuction melts the fat before the suction tube is inserted. This can be used to reduce size and sculpt areas.
- Plastic zygoma reduction: reduction of facial width by osteotomy and resection of part of the zygomatic bone and arch
- Reduction of the jaw: reduction of the mandibular angle to reduce the mandibular angle to achieve an angle To smooth the jaws and create a thinner jaw so it doesn’t appear so wide.
- Buccal Fat Extraction: Removing Mouth Pads
- Contoured Body: Remove this excess skin and fat from many areas of the body, thus restoring the appearance of skin elasticity to the remaining skin. Your surgeon can remove this loose flap with e.g. tummy tuck, but for less severe cases, we offer this via radio frequency and cavitation. For this you’ll have regular consultations before each session before we resume your next therapy. The operation is important for people who experience significant weight loss, resulting in excessive sagging skin on areas of the body.
- Skin loses elasticity (a condition called elastosis once it has stretched beyond its capacity and cannot regress to its standard position against the body and also as it ages. Radiofrequency tightens this and while we don’t require you to engage in activities after each session, when you reflect, you’ll find that even something simple like walking a dog can improve your response and therefore results dramatically.
- Sclerotherapy: Removal of visible “spider veins” (telangiectasias)
- Dermal fillers: Fillers are injections under the skin to give a fuller and youthful appearance of a facial cut or section of the face. One type of dermal filler is hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is found naturally throughout the human body. It plays an important role in transferring nutrients from the blood to the skin cells. It is also commonly used in patients with arthritis because it acts as a pillow for bones that have depleted the covering of articular cartilage. Development in this field has taken place over time, with the creation of synthetic forms of hyaluronic acid that play a role in other forms of cosmetic surgery, such as facial augmentation.
- Micro-pigmentation: it is the creation of permanent makeup with natural pigments in places such as the eyes, to create a shadow effect appearance of eyes, lips, lipstick and cheekbones create a look of blush. They insert the pigment under the skin with a machine that injects a small needle at a quick speed that carries the pigment to the skin, creating a permanent coloration of the desired area.
The most popular surgeries are Botox, liposuction, eyelid surgery, breast implants, nose surgery, and facelifts.
Complications, risks and setbacks
Every operation involves risks. Common complications of cosmetic surgery include bruising, nerve damage, infection, scarring, implant failure, and organ damage. This is where we come in as post operative after care specialists. We care for your body and advise you as needed on how to get your best results and speed up your healing.
To book in with us call or text us on 07757 946023.
Breast implants can have many complications, including rupture. In a study of his 4761 patients with breast augmentation plasty, Eisenberg reported that overfilling breast implants with saline solution significantly reduced the rate of rupture deflation to 1.83% 8 years after implantation.
In 2011, the FDA stated that one in five patients who opt for breast implants/ augmentation surgery should have these removed within 10 years of implantation.
Although media and advertising play an important role in the impact on the lives of many people, such as making people believe that plastic surgery is an acceptable way to make our identity the one that we want. They associate obsession with plastic surgery with mental disorders such as body dysmorphic disorders. There is a correlation between people with BDD and the preference for aesthetic plastic surgery to correct a perceived defect in their appearance.
BDD is a disorder that leads to the patient’s “coping” with what they see as defects in the body or face.” Alternatively, if there is a mild physical abnormality, the person’s concern is significantly exaggerated.
While 2% of people in the U.S. suffers from specific body dysmorphic disorder, 15% of patients who see a dermatologist and cosmetic surgeon suffer from it. It does not satisfy half of the patients with the condition who have undergone cosmetic surgery with the aesthetic result.
BDD can lead to the suicide of some of your patients. While many have cosmetic surgery with BDD, the procedures do not treat BDD nd image issues and can ultimately make the problem worse. Usually, the psychological root of the problem is not identified, which makes treatment even more difficult.
Some say that fixation or obsession with correcting the area could be an insufficient disorder, such as anorexia or muscle dysmorphia. The increased use of body and facial contouring applications, such as Snapchat and Facetune, is a potential triggers for BDD. Recently, a phenomenon called “Snapchat dysmorphia” seems to describe people who request surgery to look like the edited version of themselves as shown through Snapchat filters. In protest against the harmful trend, Instagram banned all augmented reality (AR) filters that were used or to promote cosmetic surgery. Sometimes, people whose doctors refuse to perform more surgeries have resorted to do-it-yourself plastic surgery by injecting themselves.
Where do Essential Feeling fit into all of this?
We don’t do plastic surgery procedures. But, we do work with patients after their surgery in our clinic to promote healing, speed up the process and improve the end results by working to reduce infections and other complications.
– Vitamin injections to speed up healing
– PRP injections or microneedling and electroporation to help break down fibrosis if some occurs
– iPRF injections for helping to keep your fat alive if you have had a BBL (Brazilian Butt Lift)
Our after care activity is trustworthy because we are trained and experienced, but also you’ll notice we are recommended as the post surgery specialists for London based plastic surgery clinics, including those on Harley Street. It’s their expressions of commitment to us and our work that means you can make your calls to us in utter confidence.